Assembly Instructions for
M1, M1M and M1S by Ray Costa
If you have never assembled a motorcycle
before, the assembly of Chang Jiang takes about 15
hours. Some jobs, such as installing the engine in
the frame or mounting the sidecar body, are more easily
done with two people rather than one, but one person can
do it. You dont have to do these steps in the same
order, but by doing it this way you will save some time
by not doing things twice.
No two kits arrive disassembled the same
way, so there are more instructions here than you will
probably need. If the procedure covered in the
instructions has already been performed, consider
You will need some additional parts in order
to pass D.O.T. inspection in most states, although very
few states actually inspect the vehicle. These
- Tires - Kits are no longer
sent from China with tires (although they do
occasionally show up). Tubes usually do
come with your kit. You will have to
provide tires, which are available inexpensively
from J.C. Whitney by mail. If your kit is
shipped with tires, you cannot pass inspection
with them since they are not D.O.T. approved,
although this is something inspectors rarely
check. My bike has Chinese tires on
it. You can, however save them for later
use, and the tubes are fine.
- Headlight - A standard
7-inch sealed beam headlight costs about $7 and
is available from a local auto parts store. The
bulb is number 6014 for 12V models and 6006 for
6-volt models. You can also use a 12V halogen
headlight bulb which is 6024.
- Battery - Some kits have
arrived with a (very LARGE) battery.
Consider that a bonus. If your kit arrives
without a battery, purchase a CB18-A battery for
a 12V motorcycle (M1M and M1-Super).
Purchase whatever fits for an M1 6V. J.C.
Whitney is also a cheap source of
batteries. Dennis Kirk is another good
- High-beam indicator:
If you want a high beam indicator light, purchase
a 12V indicator light from your local auto parts
store. They cost about $2.
- Front Brake Light
Switch: Domi Racer, in Cincinnati, OH sells
a Triumph part that will work. It costs about
$12. The part number is 95602085. This
switch mounts on the front brake cable. You
have to cut the cable housing and solder on a new
cable end to install the switch. Connect
the wires in parallel to the rear wheel brake
switch. You can also purchase a heavy-duty
cable with the switch already mounted from
F2Motorcycles in England. They will FedEx
it to your door.
owners manual for Chang Jiang motorcycles includes
instructions for adjusting the points, timing and
carburetors, and setting up the sidecar. It is a
good idea to down load the entire manual and read through
it before beginning assembly. It is also a good
idea to down load the parts drawings to use as
reference. They are both available on line at DTE.
The wiring diagram in the owners manual is not the
same as the one listed separately. Use the latter
one since it is much more complete.
are all I can find, however Chiltons published a
manual for R series BMWs in 1973 that has more
complete information, much of which is
shock absorber pinch
shock absorber pinch
Nm/21.4-24.4 ft. lbs.
22-25 Nm/16-18.5 ft. lbs.
Nm/28-30 ft. lbs.
NM/16-22 ft. lbs.
Nm/26.5-37 ft. lbs.
Nm/22-25 ft. lbs.
Nm/12-14 ft. lbs.
Nm/6-7.5 ft. lbs.
Nm/10-13 ft. lbs.
Nm/5-7 ft. lbs.
Nm/16-21 ft. lbs.
Important: Most reported
engine failures come from improperly adjusted intake and
exhaust valves or improperly adjusted and synchronized
carburetors. Before taking to the road with your
new Chang Jiang, please make sure these items are
adjusted correctly. In addition, it is a very, very
good idea to re-adjust these items after 600 to 700
kilometers. (Exhaust valves - .004 in., Intake
valves - .004 in. Spark plugs .016 to .020
in. Timing 6 degrees BTDC, static timing).
Your Chang Jiang may have been delivered in one, two or
three crates. Carefully uncrate the parts and
unwrap them. You will notice that some of the
parts, such as the frame and fenders, have chips in the
paintwork that are not the result of shipping. This
is because the motorcycles are assembled and tested
before shipping. Leave the frame rails wrapped and
do not untie the clutch release lever.
the sidecar tonneau cover. Inside you will find the
rubber base that fits under the battery, a pair of
mirrors (right and left are mirror images and
not interchangeable), the gas cap and strainer, a rubber
loop, which holds down the battery, battery cables, and a
tool kit. Some of the tools are special and will be
of use assembling the motorcycle. Indeed, you could
probably assemble the whole thing with nothing but the
tools in the kit. Since some of these are new
old stock, the case may have become mildewed.
Wash the case (not the tools) in a soap-and-water mixture
with commercial soap that fights mildew. Let the case dry
thoroughly before using it. I actually do most of
the maintenance on my bike using the tools that come with
it. They are pretty good quality, but the finish is
old-fashioned black, and not chrome.
Cylinder Barrels and Cylinder Heads (M1-Super): Some
engines arrive partially disassembled. Assembly is
very simple and takes about two hours.
- If your engine came with
the pistons sticking out and the cylinder barrels
removed, clean both very, very well.
- Rotate the engine until the
pistons are sticking all the way out. Put a
block of wood behind one piston to keep it from
being damaged by colliding with the case when the
- Make sure that all four
tappets have the cupped end outwards and not the
flat end. Assemble this wrong and you will
screw up the camshaft and the tappets. You
will also void any possible warranty claims!
- Clean the base gasket on
the other side of the engine from the one on
which you blocked the piston.
- Oil the piston and piston
rings with motor oil thoroughly.
- Get a wide spiral hose
clamp at the hardware store. Use it to
clamp the piston rings in place. You can
just barely get all three rings compressed by the
clamp. Tighten it all the way and then back
off a little.
- Oil the bore of one
cylinder barrel (both sides are the same). While
holding the cylinder barrel with one hand,
carefully feed the piston into the bottom of the
barrel. You may have to rock it a little
and rotate it a little to go in. The hose
clamp should slide down the piston. Be
careful that the ends of the piston rings to not
get caught in the cut outs in the bottom of the
barrel. Rings are brittle and easily
- Once you get all three
rings into the barrel, remove the clamp and slide
the barrel all the way down until it is seated on
the cylinder base gasket. Secure it with 4
chrome plated 16 mm nuts. Im sure you
dont have a 16mm wrench in your garage,
since this is not a common size. Dont
despair! A 16mm open-end wrench comes with
the Chang Jiang tool kit. Get the bolts
tight there is no torque setting.
Dont be a 500 lb gorilla, though, and strip
- Next, slip the cylinder
head in place making sure everything is
clean. Insure that you have the right head
on the right side. The exhaust ring goes
forward. Make sure the oil drain tube at
the bottom of the cylinder head lines up with the
oil drain in the cylinder barrel. There are
two small studs that connect the head to the
barrel. Put nuts and washers on these and
tighten carefully. One nut is in the spark
plug well, so take the spark plug out to make
sure it isnt damaged. The other, on
the bottom side of the head, has an aluminum
drain tube next to it. Be very, very
careful not to damage this drain tube. It
can be fixed, but not easily.
- Clean and insert the
pushrods. They are the same at both ends
and all four are the same.
- Figure out which rocker is
exhaust and which is intake. They only go
- Take the exhaust rocker
assembly and slide it over the head studs. Make
sure everything is clean and oiled. One end
of the rocker should contact the pushrod head and
the other the valve head. Loosen the valve
adjuster locknut and back it off a couple of
turns. Install the black 17mm nuts and
tighten to 25 lbs. Now do the intake side.
- Adjust the valves by making
sure that each pushrod is at the bottom of its
stroke, and use a screwdriver, wrench and feeler
gauge to adjust each valve to about .006
clearance. You can go as tight as .004, but for
now .006 will do.
- Install the valve cover
taking care that the gasket is straight.
Tighten the two 10mm nuts on the outside first
and then tighten the big chrome plated nut in the
center. Use non-hardening Permatex gasket sealer
to glue the gasket to the valve cover. Next
time you adjust the valves, the gasket will stay
with the valve cover.
- Repeat this process on the
other side of the engine.
- Install the carburetors
with two 15mm nuts provided. There is a
gasket, or sometimes two, that go between the
carburetor and the cylinder had. If you
have four of these gaskets, use two on each side.
- Install the
carburetor-to-air-box tubes with the spiral
- Do not install the air
cleaner at this time.
Assembly differences for
M1M and M1 engines
- Most engines are shipped
with the cylinders and valve assemblies already
installed. All that is left to do is to mount the
- At first glance the heads
look the same for both sides, but careful
inspection will reveal that they are not
perfectly symmetrical and only one head will fit
- The cylinder head gaskets
are identical for both sides.
- Make sure that the gaskets
dont get bent or kinked in anyway or they
will fail under use.
- There are eight bolts that
hold the head in place. They have 13mm square
heads and the right tool to use is a 1/2 or
13mm 12-point socket. Some tool kits have a
square head socket in them for this job. If
you have one, use it.
- Torque the bolts to about
25 foot-pounds, which isnt much.
- Place a cylinder head
gasket on the cylinder block and then put the
head in place and hold it with one hand while you
screw in a couple of bolts finger tight.
Now screw them all in finger tight.
- Tighten one of the top head
bolts to 25 ft. lbs. Now count 5 bolts
counter clockwise and tighten the bolt to 25 ft.
lbs. Keep on going around counterclockwise,
counting 5 bolts from the one just
tightened. In this way you will go all the
way around the cylinder head tightening bolts
that are approximately opposite from each other.
- Install the spark plugs if
not already installed.
Installation of starter,
M1M and M1-Super
- The starter fits into the
cradle on top of the engine.
- Put a dab or grease or some
oil on the end of the starter shaft and one the
- Loosen the starter-mounting
clamp at both bottom bolts and remove the top
- Holding the starter so that
the electrical connection is on the right side of
the engine, slide the starter into the big hole
in the front of the engine. You may have to
tap it to get it all the way in. When
inserted all the way, the two ears
that stick out in the front will clear the
starter hold down clamp.
- Install the hold down clamp
and tighten up the three bolts.
Some engines (like mine) have been machined so that the
O-ring on the starter does not seal well. That will
cause engine oil to weep down all over the top of the
engine and make a mess. I cured the problem by
using silicon gasket goo around the starter. The
result was no more leaks. Dont do this unless
you have to, because it will make the starter harder to
remove if you ever have to work on it.
Installation of the
Distributor, M1M and M1-Super
speaking, this unit is not a distributor, but merely a
housing for the points.
distributor plugs into a large round hole, mounted at an
angle at the left front top of the engine block.
- A spur gear on the camshaft
turns the gear on the bottom of the distributor
- Rotate the engine to 6
degrees before top dead center (see timing
- Remove the nut, washer and
lock nut from the distributor timing hold down
- If possible, hold the
engine so that it is standing on the right
cylinder head. As ridiculous and dangerous as
this sounds, its the best way to do this
operation. You can mount the engine on an
engine stand or block it in place with blocks of
wood. You can even hang it on a rope from a
- Loosen the timing locking
screw on the bracket attached to the bottom of
the distributor so that the distributor can turn
in the bracket.
- Put a dab of grease on the
bottom of the distributor shaft.
- Find a spot where either
cam lobe is just barely opening the points.
- Now drop the distributor
into place in the hole, being careful that the
slot in the locking bracket goes over the stud on
the engine case. Make sure the distributor
and bracket are seated all the way into the
hole. You may have to do this a few times
to get the distributor seated all the way. Try
rotating the distributor. If the cam stays
put when the body of the distributor rotates, the
shaft is engaged.
- Put the nut, washer and
lock washer on the stud and tighten it up with
the timing bracket slot right in the middle of
- Now rotate the distributor
until the points just start to open. This
is best observed with a volt/ohm meter,
continuity checker, or a piece of cigarette
- Tighten the clamp screw on
the locking bracket. The timing should be
close enough to start the engine.
- Carefully return the engine
to its proper upright position.
Parts, especially the chromed parts, are covered with
protective grease. Wipe off as much of this grease
as possible with paper towels. The parts can then
be completely degreased with spray bathroom cleaner or
engine degreaser. Both work. Spray down each
assembly separately. Dry the parts when done with
paper towels or rags. When cleaning the engine and
transmission assemblies, try not to spray the points
cover, air cleaner, or the connection for the speedometer
cable (located on the top, back, right side of the
transmission). Cover the tops of the carburetors so that
water does not leak into the float bowls. A plastic
bag does the job nicely.
and Tires: If your wheels were shipped with tires,
deflate the inner tubes completely and remove the inner
tube valve. Remove the tires from the rims with
tire irons, being careful not to pinch the tubes or
scratch up the rims. The inner tubes can be
reused. The tires are not legal for use in the U.S.
and a CJ cannot be inspected as a home-built vehicle with
these tires installed in some states.
bikes are shipped with the wheels disassembled.
Lacing wheels is not difficult. The best
instructions for lacing wheels are in Sloans
The Complete Bicycle Book, of which there are
several editions. The thing to remember is that
there are two different lengths of spokes, one for the
brake side and one for the other side. This makes the
spoke pattern different from a bicycle. Here is a
step-by-step way to do it.
- Clean the rims and wheel
hubs well with a degreaser and dry them.
Its easier to do this before the wheels are
- Start by taking the short
and long spokes and dividing them into piles of
20 each. Put a rubber band around each
pile. You will need 20 long and 20 short
spokes for each wheel.
- Take off all the spoke
nipples and clean both the ends of the spokes and
the nipples. When the bikes are fumigated
before leaving China a little steam gets into the
spoke nipples causing some surface rust.
This is no big deal. Place 20 nipples in
each of eight zip-loc bags. This way you
wont loose them or knock them over.
- Place the hub large-flange
(brake side) up on a workbench. Put a short
spoke in every other hole from the underside up
and fan out the spokes. The spoke heads will be
down, or to the inside of the wheel. If you
look carefully, you will see that every other
hole has the paint chipped a little bit.
Try to get the head ends of the spokes into the
chipped holes. This is the way the wheels
were originally assembled, and it means less
paint touch up.
- Place the rim around the
hub and spokes, flat on the bench. You will
notice that the spoke dimples in the rim are
pointed either forward or backward, and every
other one is either up or down. That makes
four different kinds.
- Take a short spoke and
stick it into an up and forward hole. Put a
nipple on the end of the spoke and give it a
couple of turns to hold it.
- Take the next spoke around
the flange (remember its every other spoke,
since you have put in only half of the spokes so
far) and stick it into the next up and forward
facing hole, which is four holes over. Put
a nipple on it and give it two complete
turns. Work your way around until you have
all ten spokes in place, all of them in the up
and forward holes.
- Next, IMPORTANT! Rotate the
hub against the rim so that the spokes are at an
angle to the rim and the hub and the nipples are
all seated in their wells in the rim.
- Now insert a set of 10
spokes from top to bottom in the other ten
holes. The spoke heads will be on the
outside of the wheel. Take one spoke, seat the
head, and fan it around until it crosses the
spoke next to it. If it forms a nice
X and lines up with an up and
backward hole, great, insert it in the hole and
install the nipple. If it doesnt line
up, you crossed the spoke in the wrong direction.
If you crossed the spoke in front, rotate it so
that it crosses the spoke in back. It
should now line up with a hole and you can
install the nipple. Do all ten spokes
making nice Xs. Do not tighten
anything yet. You want to hub to be able to
flop around in the rim.
- Turn the wheel over.
The small flange has ten double key holes, rather
than 20 discreet little holes. Insert a
long spoke in the middle of a key hole from
underneath the flange and pull it to the right,
into position. The spoke head will be
facing you (up). Rotate the spoke until it
lines up with a hole in the rim. This
should be (remember, you flipped the rim over)
and up and back facing hole. Insert the end
of the spoke in the rim and put on a nipple,
giving it only one or two turns.
- Put in the next spoke in
the next key hole clockwise in the
hub. You can actually go
counterclockwise if you wish, but I like to go
clockwise. This spoke should line up with
an up and back rim hole four spaces (empty or
filled) on the rim from the first hole.
Install a nipple.
- Work your way around until
all ten spokes are in place. Sometimes the
spokes fall out at the flange - dont worry,
just stick them back it. Once everything is
in place and tight, nothing will fall out.
- Now youre ready for
the last ten spokes, and these will be the
hardest, although this is still not rocket
science (and I can say that because my father
really was a rocket scientist. No
lie.) Take a spoke and stick it head down
through the middle of the key hole and pull it to
the left with the head facing down. You may have
trouble getting the head of the spoke in
place. Try holding the spoke almost
vertically and lining up the head with the small
part of the keyhole. This usually works to
get the head in place. A few spoke heads
are a little larger than they should be, and you
can adjust them slightly with a
file. Once the head is place, count 15
spaces (filled and unfilled) from the other spoke
in the key hole with the head up. The spoke
should line up with an up and forward hole in the
rim. Insert the end of the spoke and screw
on a nipple.
- Work your way around, one
spoke at a time. A few of the spoke may
take a little bending to get them in
position. The wheel will begin to firm up
as you work your way around and the rim will no
longer be on the work surface. It will be
more-or-less in the middle of the hub.
- With all the spokes in
place you are ready to start truing the
wheel. If your spoke nipple has a
screwdriver slot in the head, you are in
luck. If not this next step will take a
little longer, but not much. Tighten all
the short spokes so that the end of the spoke is
even with the end of the nipple. You can
use your fingers, an electric screwdriver, or a
wrench. I like to use a 4 adjustable
wrench. There is a spoke wrench in the tool
kit its a notch in a funning look
tool that has two pins in the other end and a 27
stamped on it. The 27mm is the wrench you
need to tighten the spare tire nut on the
sidecar. By tightening all the short spokes
first you will get the wheel nearly round right
off the bat, and you will also get it
dished correctly more about
- Now tighten all the long
spokes so that they are not flopping
around. If you do these two steps, some of
the steps below will be a lot easier, and maybe
- Mark a spot on the rim with
masking tape right in the middle of where two
spokes from the small flange attach to the rim,
one position apart. The spokes will be
parallel, one from each side of the flange.
One will be a heads up spoke and one a heads down
spoke. Do the same thing directly opposite
on the wheel. Now mark two spots at right
angles to the first pair of marks. You
should now have four marks each 90 degrees from
each other, evenly spaced around the wheel.
Take a ballpoint pen and mark the tape marks
1,2,3 and 4. Marks 1 and 3 will be
opposite, and 2 and 4 will be opposite.
- Tighten the two spokes at
position one three turns each. Then tighten
the spokes at position 3 three turns each.
Now tighten the spokes at position 2 three turns
each. Finally, tighten the spokes at
position 4 three turns each.
- Flip the wheel over and do
the same thing with the spokes coming from the
large flange at points one through four.
This will keep the hub pretty wheel centered in
- Now go around the wheel and
tighten all the rest of the spoke three turns
each, working in opposite pairs if
possible. If any spokes on the small flange
fall out, put them back in.
- Dishing: It is
important that the wheel be dished
correctly, or you will break some short
spokes. By now you will have noticed that
the large flange is not at 90 degrees to the hub
its at an angle pointing in to the
center. You want to adjust the spokes
side-to-side so that both the inner and
outer short spoke shanks do not touch the flange
at its outer edge. If you tighten all the
short spokes first, you will probably be pretty
close. The ideal is to have the gap between
the spoke shanks and the flange is the same for
both the inner and out spokes. You can
achieve this by tightening all the short spokes
and loosening all the long spokes, or vice versa,
to move the rim back and forth to change the
angle of the spokes. The spoke angle for
the long spokes is unimportant. The hub
will not be in the center if you dished it
correctly. Remember that there is also a
brake plate that is part of the hub. When
you add that, the wheel will be more-or-less in
- OK back to the main
program - The wheel will still be a little
loose. Repeat the last three steps as many
times as necessary until the spokes are
reasonably tight. They should
ping when tapped with a screwdriver
and not thunk.
- Once all the spokes are
reasonably tight and the spoke nipples well
seated in the dimples in the rim, it is time to
mount the wheel and spin it. You can make a
truing jig that makes the job easier, or you can
mount each wheel on the front or sidecar
axle. If the sidecar body and fender are
already attached to the sidecar, you will have to
use the front axle. Screw the front axle in
place. The front axle has a left hand
thread. When you spin the wheel it will
wobble from side to side (run out) and up and
down. You will need to attach some
indicators to the fork to gauge your
progress. A piece of wood taped
across the fork above the wheel will work well
enough for up and down movements. Tape it
in place so the wheel just barely rubs at its
highest spot. Tape a couple of 1/4x20
nuts attached to a long bolt to the fork at the
rim level so that when you screw in the bolt it
just touches the edge of the rim.
- You want to get the up and
down variation of the rim to within a couple of
millimeters from true. Do this by adjusting
pair of spokes. Tighten spots opposite a
high spoke and loosen spokes at the high
spot. Do this no more than one turn at a
time. The wheel rims are usually a little
out of round at the weld, so as long as you are
not going to go 90 mph, a 2mm variation will not
- Next true the wheel from
side to side. Adjust spokes from opposite
sides of the wheel to move the rim back and
forth. This takes time and patience, but
you can get the rim very close to perfect.
I figure a millimeter of run out is close enough,
and I can usually get better than that.
- Re-check the spoke to make
sure none go thunk and youre
general books on motorcycle maintenance have information
on how to true wheels. The local library will have
at least a couple of general motorcycle maintenance
books. You can also follow the directions in
Sloans bicycle book, mentioned above.
grind off the ends of spokes that stick out so that they
wont puncture the inner tube. I use a cheap
stone on the end of an old electric drill. If you have
access to an angle grinder it will save you time, but be
careful with it because it will cut very fast. If
you have trued the wheels well, only a few spokes will
stick out. Clean the inside of each wheel and put
the rim strip back on before you mount the news tires.
This is the single most time-consuming process in
assembling the motorcycle. You may want to have
this done at a local motorcycle shop.
The headlight that comes with the kit is not a sealed
beam unit and will not pass inspection in most
states. Replace M1 headlights with sealed beam unit
6005 and M1 and M1-Super headlights with sealed beam unit
6014 or 6024. Remove the screw at the bottom of the
headlight rim. Remove the old unit (if installed)
from the rim by carefully unclipping the springs with a
needle-nose pliers. There are eight. Install
the new sealed beam bulb noting that 12 oclock on
the bulb is at 12 oclock in the rim. You
cannot put clips right at the top of the bulb, or the rim
will not fit in the shell. Space the four pair of
clips around the bulb, as closely as possible in opposite
pairs. While the headlight shell is apart, make
sure the connections to the electrical components inside
are tight. This applies mainly to the connections held in
place by Phillips-head screws. Reinstall the
rim. You will have to push on it a little bit.
are going to install a high beam indicator light, do it
while the headlight is removed.
of Engine Unit: If your kit was shipped with
the sidecar assembled and attached to the motorcycle
frame, disconnect the wiring to the sidecar and the two
top bolts at the knife-and-fork joints. Then back
off the locking screws and unscrew the clamshell/ball
joints. Wheel the sidecar out of the way.
- With the frame
sitting on the ground, remove the gas tank by
removing the gasoline hoses and the four
connecting bolts. (You can also do this
with the wheels and tires on and the center stand
down. If you do, block the from wheel so
that it cannot roll.) The two bolts that
connect the tank to the headstock are straight
forward. The two bolts at the back are
underneath the tank on either side. Remove
these, taking care that two rubber spacers go
above the bracket and one below the bracket on
each side. Remove the tank and put it in a
- Remove the electrical
package, which is located on a bracket beneath
the seat. There are two 8 mm screws that
hold it in place. Leave the wires attached
and place it up where the seat goes. Remember
that there is a brown ground wire attached to one
of the bracket screws.
- Remove the air
cleaner assembly from the engine, if attached,
and put it aside. There are set screws on
either side of the engine to hold it in place.
- Remove the coil and
its bracket from the top of the
engine. Disconnect the yellow wire to the
point housing. Put the assembly aside.
- If you are doing this
with the frame on the floor and the wheels off,
put a length of 2x6 lumber, 18long next to
the frame, and put the some lengths of 1x4 or 1x3
on top of them. You can nail these blocks
of wood together if you want to, but it
isnt necessary. Place the engine unit
on the wood blocks next to the frame and lined up
with the frame on the left side (facing forward).
(The next step is easier with two people, but one
person can do it.) While raising the right
side cylinder, slide the crankcase off of the
wood blocks, over the frame rail and down between
the frame rails. It goes easily. The
top of the starter (or generator) may scrape the
gas tank-mounting bracket, so be careful.
You can always touch it up the silver paint
later. The engine will slide back and forth
about an inch. Slide it as far forward as
possible (or pull the frame back as far as
possible) and align the two drive shaft tips with
the holes in the transmission output shaft rubber
block. While they are aligned, pull the
engine back in the frame until the tips are
inserted into the holes. A little dish detergent
will act as a lubricant. Do not use grease
or petroleum jelly as it corrodes the rubber.
Unwrap the padding from the frame rails.
- Lift the frame around
the engine and put some wooden blocks in place
underneath so that the mounting holes in the
frame align with the mounting holes in the
crankcase. The thicker spacers go on left
side of the engine and the thinner spacers go on
the right side. Run the forward
mounting shaft through the holes and spacers and
attach the lock washers and bolts. Do not
tighten yet. Run the rear shaft through the
engine, spacers and frame. The foot pegs go
on the ends of the shaft outside the frame
rails. The left peg is the short one and
the right peg is the long one. Install by
putting a lock washer and nut on each end.
Tighten the front shaft nuts. Do not
tighten the rear shaft nuts because the exhaust
pipes have to be attached at the point as well.
- Re-install the coil
assembly. Make sure that the brown ground
wire at the front of the frame is attached to one
of the mounting studs. Do not forget to
re-install the yellow wire to the points
unit. Connect the spark plug wires.
- While the electrical
package is removed, install the battery
cables. The red cable attaches to the upper
right hand corner, where there are two other red
wires attached. The black cable attaches to
any ground, but a convenient one is the lower
right mounting bolt on the back of the electrical
package. It has a 10 mm nut. This is
the bolt that holds the bottom of the starter
solenoid in place. While you are at it,
make sure all of the screw connections across the
top of the electrical package are tight.
Reinstall the electrical package.
- Attach the thick
yellow wire to the lug on the side of the
- Reinstall the air
- Untie the clutch
release lever and attach the clutch cable.
Adjust following directions in the owners
manual. On some bikes the lever is curved.
On some bikes the lever is straight, which will
requires some adjustments. If the clutch
cable appears to be way too short, loosen the
bolt on the ring clamp at the back of the engine
to which the clutch release lever is
attached. Now slight the clamp away from
the engine just a little bit until you can
get the end of the clutch cable into the fork on
the lever. Making sure that the clutch
lever does not touch the drive shaft drum,
tighten the ring clamp. After some use the
clutch cable will stretch a little, and you will
have to repeat this procedure for adjusting the
ring clamp. Eventually you may be able to
seat it all the way against the engine.
- Unscrew the two
screws that hold on the alternator/generator
cover at the front of the engine. Attach
the wires to the generator or alternator.
Follow the diagram provided. If you dont
have the diagram, the three white wires (on some
bikes these three wires are red) go to the three
connectors in a row at the top of the
alternator. The blue wire attaches to the
J+ connector, and the black wire goes
to the N connector. There is
one connector left over which is not used.
Reinstall the cover. There is a diagram at
the end of the instructions for the alternator
and for the whole bike. The alternator diagram
was drawn by Ted Smith. The wiring diagram
for the whole bike comes from Butch,
of the Shanghai Bikers.
- Install the throttle
cables in the carburetors. Unscrew the ring
nut at the top of each carburetor. Remove
the top unit. Carefully remove the slide
and needle, taking care not to get it
dirty. Run the end of the throttle cable
through the ring nut and the pipe through the top
of the carburetor. Take the throttle return
spring and put it around the end of the throttle
cable. Carefully compress the spring so
that the end of the cable with the ball end
sticks out. Slide the end of the cable
under the bottom of the slide and lace the cable
through the slit in the throttle slide. The
throttle slides go with the cutout away from the
cylinder head (the test unit was shipped with the
slides in backwards). The spring will then
sit in its proper well. Turn the
twist-grip to make sure that the cable is free
and moves the slide. Insert the slide back
into the carburetor body, taking care to get the
needle into the main jet orifice. This is
made easier if you place a finger on top of the
needle and wiggle it around a bit until you find
the hole. Put the top in place (there is a
locating lug) and tighten up the ring nut. Repeat
on the other side. Adjust the carburetor
cables according to the instructions in the
owners manual. This completes the
and Rear Brake Springs: The kickstand spring is
large and black. The front loop is bigger than the
rear loop. The front loop slips over the left rear engine
mount spacer. With the kickstand in the down
position, grip the rear loop with a vice grip and pull it
over the pin on the kickstand.
brake return spring attaches to a pin sticking out of the
bottom of the transmission. The other end attaches
to the forked lever on the inside of the frame from the
brake pedal. Loosen the rear engine mounting rod
nut (right side) until the foot peg is loose.
Rotate the brake pedal all the way in the up position and
slip the aft end of the spring over the fork in the
lever. Reset the foot peg and tighten the nut.
now time to get the motorcycle off the floor. Lift
the rear of the motorcycle and putt in on something like
a milk crate. Flip down the kickstand. Raise
the front end by placing a jack under the front
axle. An old scissors jack or a hydraulic floor
jack will work well. Bring the machine up to
level. Put some blocks under the sump to be on the
The exhaust system consists of a header pipe and a
muffler for each side. The sides are not
interchangeable. Install the header pipes into the
exhaust ports of the cylinder heads. Tighten the
finned nuts somewhat, but do not tighten
completely. The mounting ears attach to the foot
peg studs. Loosen the nut, slip on the mounting ear
and reattach on each side. Next, slip the mufflers
over the ends of the header pipes. The mufflers are
hung from the inside on the lower shock absorber pinch
bolt. On the right side this is a tight fit.
On the left side it is quite easy. Tighten this
bolt on each according to the torque listings. The
castle nut on the front of the muffler can be tightened
with the special tool in the tool kit that looks like a
hook, a hammer and punch (ouch!) or a pipe wrench/channel
lock. If using a pipe wrench or channel lock
pliers, wrap duct tape or masking tape around the nut at
least two layers thick. This will prevent the
chrome from being ruined. Lastly, tighten the ring
nuts on the cylinder heads until the packing is
comfortably tight and nothing is slipping. Over
tightening risks stripping the threads in the cylinder
Clean the protective grease from the handlebars and
tighten the clamps. Tighten the blots and then
tighten the nuts. The nuts are lock nuts. The
switches are held in place by set screws. One set
screw has a point that seats in a hole in the
handlebars. The switches, then, are fixed in
position. Dont take them apart or little
springs will fly all over the place. Control Levers
can only be removed or adjusted by removing first the
cable, and then the lever itself from the base. This
reveals a clamp screw that faces the end of the
handlebar. Loosen this clamp screw to adjust or
remove the lever, and then reassemble the lever handle
fender and Seat: Attach the tail light assembly
to the fender with the four 10mm screws provided.
Make sure the wires stick out through the right
side. Connect the taillight wires to the fender
wires like this (some bikes may vary in color. If
yours is one of them, you will have to test each wire.):
= Brake light
= Right turn
= Tail light
= Left turn
might want to take a roll of black electrical tape and
tidy up the wiring, since the wires are a lot longer than
they need to be.
- Remove the outside
nuts from the lower shock absorber bolts.
Remove the bolts from the attachment bracket for
the drivers seat and rear fender and the
lower frame mounting point. Lower the
fender into place carefully, making sure the cut
out clears the drive shaft, and the wire for the
rear brake switch is not pinched between the
fender and the frame. Slip the rear fender stays
over the ends of the lower shock bolts and put
the nuts back on loosely. Next, install the
two large fender-to-frame mounting bolts.
- Remove the nuts from
the upper shock absorber bolts. Attach the
package carrier to the fender with the four 10mm
bolts provided. It only fits one way.
Slip the support legs over the ends of the upper
shock mount bolts. Replace the nuts and
tighten all four shock mount bolts.
- Install the passenger
seat on top of the package carrier with the three
bolts provided. I found it easier to put
the nuts on top and the bolt heads underneath.
- The wiring harness
for the rear fender plugs into the main wiring
harness with a big rectangular plug. A
smaller rectangular plug is for the sidecar
lights, and another small plug is for the brake
light switch. Leaving the drivers
seat and gas tank off until the end allows
tidying up the wiring when it is complete.
- There is a small
spring at the front of the brake light
switch. It connects to a clamp on the brake
rod. Adjust this after the rear wheel is in
place and the rear brake is adjusted.
Fender: The front fender attaches to the front fork
with four small bolts and two big ones. Attach the
two upper nuts first so that the fender is hanging in
place. These 14mm nuts are the ends of the pinch
bolts that hold the fork from twisting, so tighten them
well. Next attach the fender stays to the four
small bolts. Dont over tighten the small nuts
or you will snap the bolts. Tighten the two large
nuts nice and tight. There are brackets on the top of the
fender for a front license plate, not required in the
United States. You can fashion a license plate if
you want to, or simply remove the brackets.
Wheel: It is a good idea to take some fine sand
paper and clean the inside of each brake drum before
installation. Remove the rear axle by removing the
castle nut and the cotter pin. Pull out the
axle. Remove the lower shock absorber pinch bolt
outer nuts and the fender stays. Tilt the fender up
at the hinge and tie it in the up position. Slide
the wheel over the brake shoes and make sure the splines
on the wheel connect with the splines on the drive
hub. Push the axle back in, attach the nut, tight
it, and install the cotter pin. Lower the rear
fender. Attach the fender stays to the lower pinch
bolts, put on the nuts and lock washers and tighten the
nuts. Adjust the brake by turning the big wing nut
at the front of the brake rod. Adjust the brake
light switch by either moving the attaching clamp, or
moving the switch back-and-forth in the holder using the
two large nuts. Do not over tighten the nuts!
Brake and Wheel: Remove the jack from the front
of the motorcycle. If the bike will not stay up
with the front axle off the ground, puts some weights on
the passenger seat (a sack of sand works), or have
someone sit on the seat. Loosen the pinch bolt that
holds the axle tight, unscrew the front axle and pull it
out. Put the front brake plate into the brake drum
of the front wheel and jockey the wheel and brake into
position. There is a pair of guides welded to the
inside of the front fork that meshes with the lug on the
brake plate. Slide the lug up and into the guides
while lifting the wheel into position. As soon as
you get it there, push the axle into place, screw it in
tight, and tighten the pinch bolt. You can now
thank your passenger or put the bag of sand
away. Adjust the front brake cable using the
adjuster at the wheel.
Put the rubber pad at the bottom of the battery
carrier. Drop the battery in place and connect the
cables, red to + and black to
-. The fat rubber loop is to hold down
the battery, but I found it a bit to short. I made
a triangle out of a black wire coat hanger and put this
on the front of the battery. I used the rubber loop
over the top. It works fine and looks OK. You
might want to do something else. (Some people
have relocated the battery to the sidecar trunk.
You can use the same battery carrier, however you will
need to install longer battery cables and drill a hole in
the side of the sidecar trunk for the cables.
Remember to line the hole with a rubber grommet, some
silicon caulk, or the like. You do not want to cut trough
the insulation and short the battery cables.)
Seat and Gas Tank: Install the gas tank
carefully. Attach the front mounting ears to the
steering stem. The rear attaches to the brackets with the
two rubber pads above the bracket and one underneath on
each side. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN! It is a good idea
to use new rubber gas line and hose clamps available at
any auto parts store.
drivers seat attaches with a pivot bolt in the
front and a shock absorber bolt at the back. It is
as simple as it looks.
Adjust the clutch cable, throttle cables, timing, points
adjustment valve lash, and front and rear brakes
accordingly to the directions in the owners
manual. Remember, these adjustments are important!
Adjust the handlebars to suit yourself.
Adjust the headlight so it is aimed properly. Check
the oil levels in the engine (SAE 20-50 in summer, 10-40
in fall and spring), transmission (EP 90) and rear end
(EP 90) and make sure that things that need to be greased
are greased (like the rear shocks). Since the parts
of your kit may have been sitting somewhere for a long
time, consider changing the fluids before running the
engine very far.
the engine and make sure everything is adjusted
properly. You may want to ride the motorcycle for a
few days to make sure everything is working properly
before attaching the sidecar. Be careful with the
center stand. It is way too long for casual use and
it is difficult to get the motorcycle on the stand.
Some owners who use their bikes without the sidecar
modify the stand by cutting out 1 ¼ and having the
Fender: The sidecar fender attaches with three bolts
in the front, two on the side, and one at the rear.
Mount the sidecar fender bracket to the outside spring
shackle. Loosen the U-bolts and remove them.
Put the bracket on top of the spring, aimed towards the
back of the frame, and replace the U-bolts. Tighten
well! Hang the fender on the fender bracket with
one bolt so that you can attach the rear bolt and the
front bolts. Hand-tighten everything until while
you adjust the fender and then tighten all the
bolts. Run the running light wires across the axle
and secure with wire retainers supplied.
Seat and Body: With the sidecar chassis sitting
on supports (plastic milk crates work well), place the
two rubber bumpers on the top of the round front frame
member with the flanges on the outside. Make sure
the u-shaped body hanger on the rear springs is in the
down position and slid out to about one inch
from the ends of the springs. Left the body onto
the chassis (Two people are better than one person for
this job,) being careful to locate the groove in the
bottom of the front of the body on top of the rubber
bumpers. Next, locate the rear body hanger so that
it lines up with the two reinforced holes in the bottom
of the sidecar trunk. Insert bolts through these
holes and the hanger and tighten. Attach the lower
rubber bumpers and their u-shaped housings to the bottom
of the sidecar with four bolts each. Put a washer
on either side of the bolt. I wasnt happy
with the washers that came with the kit, so I used
thicker and heavier washers for this job.
the lower seat cushion. There is a prong at the
front that fits into a hole in the floor.
Thats it! The rear cushion is installed by
sliding it in place and pushing the two studs through the
mounting holes in the sidecar body. Install the
nuts and lock washers from inside the trunk.
Wheel and Spare: Slide spacer onto the axle with the
large part toward the outside of the sidecar. Slide
the round disk onto the axle all the way, with the
painted surface toward the inside of the sidecar
frame. Slide a wheel onto the axle. Tighten
the nut to about 10 ft. lbs and install the cotter pin.
spare tire fits over the spindle and bracket on the
sidecar trunk lid. Use the chrome nut to hold it in
place. Tighten it to about 10 ft-lbs. Use the
wheel that is least true for the spare. The sidecar
is now complete and ready to attach to the motorcycle.
Frame to Motorcycle Frame: There are four
mounting points that connect the sidecar frame with the
motorcycle frame. With the motorcycle on the stand, wheel
the sidecar next to the bike. Put a dab of grease
on each of the lower mounting balls on the motorcycle
frame. Push the claws of the lower
mounts on the sidecar frame all the way out. Mate
up either the front or rear joint by putting the
claws over the ball. Tighten the draw
bolt that draws the claws inward, but dont make it
tight. Now do the same with the other end.
connect the rear upper attachment, which is held in place
with a knife-and-fork joint. Make the connection
and insert the bolt that holds the knife in the
fork. Dont tighten it yet. Take the
motorcycle off the kickstand. Now attach the front
upper stay, which connects just like the rear one.
back of the sidecar there are two pinch bolts that allow
the rear attachment to telescope in an out a little
bit. The sidecar frame should be adjusted so that
there is a little bit of toe-in between the sidecar wheel
and the motorcycle. Follow the directions in the
owners manual. Tighten the pinch bolts when
done, and tighten the lower connector draw bolts.
Put cotter pins through the draw bolt heads.
adjust the two upper stays so that the motorcycle is
about 2 degrees past vertical. Now tighten the
upper stay bolts.
the wires of the sidecar lights to the wiring harness by
plugging in the plug.
have never driven a sidecar rig, take the corners slowly
and dont go too fast. Remember that you are
stopping considerably more weight with the same brakes,
and there are two brakes are on one side, and none on the
other! This takes practice. Go for a ride and see
if the rig is tight and reasonably steady. Start
the engine, and after it is warm and running evenly, go
enjoy yourself. Take your helper along.
Please wear a helmet, and dont celebrate with beer
or wine until you get back.
tuning: The carbs have to be synchronized for
the engine to run well. If you can find a flow
meter gauge, commonly used on old British sports cars,
this will make life easier. Mine is called a Unisyn
and Ive had it for 25 years. If you have the
tool, you know how to use it, so nuff said.
with a warm engine. [The choke should be fully open when
you perform the following procedure.] There are three
adjustments on each carburetor. These are the cable
adjuster at the top, the idle speed stop on the bottom
(at an angle) and the idle air bleed screw on the
side. Start by loosening the locknut on the bleed
screws of both carbs and screwing them in gently all the
way. Now back both out 1.5 turns and tighten the
lock nuts just a bit. Next, loosen the lock nuts on
the idle speed screws. Turn these screws out until
no resistance is felt. Now run them back in until
you can barely detect upward movement of the throttle
slide. This is better accomplished with a clean
finger than by eye. Now tighten the lock nut on one
side. On the other side, disconnect the spark plug
wire and ground it by plugging an old spark plug in and
laying it on top of the cylinder head. Screw
in the speed screw a couple of turns and start the
engine. Run the screw in and out until you get the
lowest idle you can get without the engine
stalling. Tighten the lock nut. Now back out
the idle air bleed screw one half turn at a time.
The idle speed should go up. At some point the
mixture will become too lean and the engine speed will
start to decrease again. Back the screw in to
maximum RPM and then run it in again one more half
turn. Set the lock nut and turn off the
engine. Repeat the process on the other side.
Now hook up both spark plugs and start the engine.
It should start and idle smoothly. If the idle
speed is too low, adjust both idle speed screws in an
equal amount. Blip the throttle. If the
engine hesitates or coughs, adjust both air screws in one
half additional turn. Do this until the hesitation
disappears and the idle speed is steady and not too
slow. If it gets too slow, adjust the stop screws
adjust the cable adjusters until there is almost no free
play on either side. Now, with the engine off and
the slides all the way in the down position, look at one
slide at the same time you have a finger lightly placed
on the other side (because you cant see both at the
same time). Turn the twist grip slightly and adjust
the cables so that both throttle slides lift off at
precisely the same time. This takes a few
tries. Remember to keep your hands clean!
Replace the rubber dust boots.
ride the bike and see how it runs on the road. If
things are good, ride it for a few days and then remove
the spark plugs. The color of the electrode should
be brown or tan. If it is white, the mixture is too
lean, and if it is black, the mixture is too rich.
Adjust the mixture by lowering or raising the metering
needle. Raising it a notch at a time richens the
mixture, and lowering it leans out the mixture. To
get to the metering needle, loosen the ring nut at the
top of the carb and pull out the slide. There is a
little clip that holds the needle in place. Slide
off the clip, move the needle up or down, and replace the
clip. Dont lose the %$#@#$ clip! Now do
the same for the other carburetor. Drive the bike
again for a few days and check the spark plugs
again. If your bike is still not running
beautifully, check the points and timing.
Chilton BMW manual describes this process a little
differently. It recommends at each step of the
operation to pull a spark plug wire and listen to the
engine, then pull the other one. Whichever side
runs slower, adjust the idle speed screw so that both
cylinders run independently at the same speed. Then
do the same thing with the air bleed screws. The
idle speed will then be too fast, so back off the idle
speed screws equal amount for both cylinders.
Chilton recommends a millimeter of free play on the
First adjust the points at maximum opening to between
.016 and .020 inches. This is easy. Now
take the rubber plug out of the flywheel cover on the
left side of the engine. Rotate the engine with the
kick-starter until the 6 is in the center of
the hole. Loosen the hold down screw on the points
assembly (M1M and M1-Super). Hook up a 12V test
light from the point wire to ground. Rotate the
body of the points cover until the light just goes
out. Tighten the lock nut and replace the rubber
plug. You can also do this with a timing
light. With the engine at minimum RPM the timing
should be at 6 to 8 degrees BTDC, and at maximum RPM it
should be approximately 30 degrees BTDC. Either
way, test drive the bike and make sure it is running
well. The compression is low on these bikes, so it is
possible to get the timing advanced way past where it
should be and still not have then engine ping. The
best test is to balance the mid-range torque with the
idle speed. By retarding the spark you can get a
nice even idle, but mid-range acceleration will
suffer. If you adjust the spark for good mid-range
acceleration, the idle will be a little ragged. I
prefer the latter.
have noted a few problems which may crop up from time to
time on individual machines.
- On some motorcycles the
front fork slider assembly does not come from the
factory screwed into the fork leg top
plugs. These are the large, chromed nuts on
top of the forks. Unscrew these using the
special wrench in the tool kit. Screw the
slider into the top plug and tighten the lock
nut. While you have the fork tubes open,
take out the bottom drain screws and drain out
the fluid that comes from the factory.
Refill with 100 cc of power steering fluid.
This will give a better ride. Screw in the
- The three wires that come
out of the alternator and are soldered to the
little terminal board are sometimes not soldered
correctly. Re-solder if necessary.
- The original voltage
regulator is mechanical. This is fine if
all you do is potter around the streets of
Beijing at 35 mph. If you go out cruising
at a higher speed, the vibration will eventually
kill this unit, and often wreck the alternator in
the process. Alternators are expensive. The
rectifier bridge that comes with the bike is
enormous, but fairly robust. The two units
can be replaced with a much smaller, solid-state
universal-fit module available from Dennis Kirk,
Inc. You can also replace just the
rectifier, and you can replace the voltage
regulator with a Bosch unit from an early
1970s BMW or VW (but not a bug). I
use a replacement made in the U.S.A. but Standard
Motor Products. The Standard regulator is
number SMP VR124. The black wires goes to
ground. The green wire connects to black
wire on the bike, and the red wire connects to
the black/white wire. You will have to come
up with some or of wire connectors, or you can
just solder the wires together. I would
strongly suggest making this conversion as soon
as possible. Your bike will be more
- The decals on the tank and
sidecar can be removed by carefully peeling them
backwards, peeling back against the un-peeled
portion rather than at 90 degrees to the
surface. The goo can be removed with
automotive goo remover or hardware store paint
thinner. Do not use lacquer thinner!
It will melt the paint!
- The gasket in the gas tank
petcock comes apart in a 10% gasohol mixture used
in some areas. You can make a new gasket
out of red rubber gasket material available at
Ace hardware. If you want one precut,
contact me and Ill send you one.
These gaskets need to be soaked in fuel for a few
days before they seal, but then they work well.
- Somebody noted that I
forgot to mention that the two tubes on the
bottom of the gas tank are to connect a balance
tube from side to side. If you dont,
gas will go all over the floor. Also, the
gasket in the gas cap will eventually swell so
that it doesnt fit. You can make one
out of sheet cork, or get one from a John Deere
tractor or a really old VW that has
its gas cap under the hood (1963 or
earlier). If I sell you an original, it
will distort too.
- New pattern (modern)
carburetors will be available soon from
China. These will be made by Keihin and be
similar in design to older Mikuni
carburetors. They will eliminate the
problem some owners have had with fuel boiling
and float problems and will provide much smoother
engine performance. I should know I
did the sting!